This page starts with a brief
history of magic tesseracts, along with a list
of references.
Then I show the Order3 Index #1 tesseract in
diagram and text form.
This is followed by the other 57 order3 magic tesseracts, listed in index
order in text form.
Then is shown a catalog of all basic order3
tesseracts using just 8 identifying numbers.
Finally I show a new type of classification based
on placement of the even and odd numbers.
Introduction
It is difficult to say who constructed
the first 4dimensional magic hypercube. However, C. Planck, in his 1905 paper
[1] mentions that he published a dimension 4
order3 magic hypercube in The English Mechanic, March 16, 1888. In 1917
both Dr. Planck, and H.M. Kingery published octahedroids in Andrews
Magic Squares and Cubes.[2]
John R. Hendricks (19292007) appears to
be the first to construct and publish all order3 magic tesseracts. By 1985 he
had constructed 58 basic order3 and proved that that was all there were. The
first one was published in 1962 [3] (along with
dimension 5 and 6 magic hypercubes) when he introduced his new diagram for the
tesseract. 30 of these were published in JRM between 1985 and 1990
[4] and all 58 in
[5].
About this same time, Keh Ying Lin of
Taiwan was also working on this same problem. He published Magic Cubes and
Hypercubes of Order3 in 1986. [6]
He also proved that there were 58 basic tesseracts of order3. He showed method
of construction, but did not actually list them. He also showed that there are
384 aspects of each , as a result of rotations/reflections.
He further stated that there are 2992 basic order3 hypercubes of dimension 5
with 3840 aspects, and 543328 order3, dimension 6 with 46080 aspects.
David Collison (19371991) verified by
computer exhaustion 58 magic tesseracts of order3, and sent Hendricks a
computer printout of 7 and 8 dimension examples.[7]
References
Listed here are references I have used in the compiling of
this page. I will cite a particular reference, if my information came from only
that source.
However, most of these contain much the same information, so will not be cited
separately.
Note that Hendricks published many more articles and books on the subject then
those I have listed below.
[1]
Planck, C. (M.A., M.R.C.S.) The Theory of Paths Nasik, Printed for
private circulation by A. J. Lawrence, Printer, Rugby (England), 1905
[2] Andrews, W. S., Magic Squares and Cubes, Dover Publ. 1960,.
Pages 351375. This book originally published in 1917 by Open Court Publishing.
[3] Hendricks, J. R., The Five and SixDimensional Magic Hypercubes of
Order 3,
Canadian Math. Bulletin, 5:2:1962,
pages171190
[4] Hendricks, J. R.,
Ten Magic Tesseracts of Order 3, Journal of Recreational Mathematics,
18:2, 1986, pp 125134 (T# 1 – 10)
The Third Order Magic Tesseract,
Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 20:4, 1988, pp 251256 (T# 21  24)
Another Magic Tesseract of order 3,
Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 20:4, 1988, pp 275276 (T# 11)
Creating More Magic Tesseracts of Order 3,
Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 20:4, 1988, pp 279283 (T# 1216)
Groups of Magic Tesseracts, Journal of
Recreational Mathematics, 21:1, 1989, pp 1318 (T# 2530)
More and More Magic Tesseracts,
Journal of Recreational Mathematics, 21:1, 1989, pp 2628 (T# 1720)
[5] Hendricks, J. R., The Magic Square Course, 1991, 554 pages
printed for a senior high school course he was teaching. (available at Strens
Recreational Mathematics Collection, University of Calgary (Canada)
[6] Keh Ying Lin, Magic Cubes and Hypercubes of Order3, Discrete
Mathematics 58:2, February 1986, pages 159166 (this cited in [7]
[7] Hendricks, J. R., All ThirdOrder Magic Tesseracts,
Selfpublished, 1999, 0968470025 (Both Keh and Collison mentioned, all
tesseracts diagrammed, species)
[8] Hendricks, J. R., Magic Squares to Tesseract by Computer,
Selfpublished, 1998, 0968470009
[9] Heinz & Hendricks, Magic Square Lexicon: Illustrated, HDH,
2000, 0968798500
The 58 order3
magic tesseracts
Index # 1
This is the first of the 58 order3 basic magic
tesseracts.
I show it here in both text form and as a
diagram. The other 57 tesseracts will be listed below in text form
only.
48 62 13 70 24 29 5 37 81
7 42 74 50 55 18 66 26 31
68 19 36 3 44 76 52 60 11
4 39 80 47 61 15 72 23 28
65 25 33 9 41 73 49 57 17
54 59 10 67 21 35 2 43 78
71 22 30 6 38 79 46 63 14
51 56 16 64 27 32 8 40 75
1 45 77 53 58 12 69 20 34


The layout for the text listings on this page are as
per the system of coordinates shown on my
introductory page.
Aale de Winkel also lists all 58 order3 tesseracts in his
encyclopedia, but in a different format. No claim is made here as to
which is the correct one. They are simply two different methods (aspects)
of presenting the numbers in the tesseract. Other ways of listing these
tesseracts are also often seen, even on my pages!
It should be noted, however, that the diagram shown here is of the basic
tesseract in the standard position. The lowest corner number is in the
lower left front corner, with the four adjacent numbers in increasing
order of x, y, z, and w.
Index # 2
66 26 31  52 60 11  05 37 81
07 42 74  68 19 36  48 62 13
50 55 18  03 44 76  70 24 29
04 39 80  65 25 33  54 59 10
47 61 15  09 41 73  67 21 35
72 23 28  49 57 17 0 2 43 78
53 58 12  06 38 79  64 27 32
69 20 34  46 63 14  08 40 75
01 45 77  71 22 30  51 56 16 
Index # 3
60 26 37  52 660 5  11 31 81
19 42 62  68 07 48  36 74 13
44 55 24  03 50 70  76 18 29
10 33 80  59 25 39  54 65 04
35 73 15  21 41 61  67 09 47
78 17 28  43 57 23  02 49 72
53 64 06  12 32 79  58 27 38
69 08 46  34 75 14  20 40 63
01 51 71  77 16 30  45 56 22 
Index # 4
62 24 37  48 70 05  13 29 81
19 44 60  68 03 52  36 76 11
42 55 26  07 50 66  74 18 31
10 35 78  59 21 43  54 67 02
33 73 17  25 41 57  65 09 49
80 15 28  39 61 23  04 47 72
51 64 08  16 32 75  56 27 40
71 06 46  30 79 14  22 38 63
01 53 69  77 12 34  45 58 20 
Index # 5
61 24 38  48 71 04  14 28 81
20 43 60  67 03 53  36 77 10
42 56 25  08 49 66  73 18 32
12 35 76  59 19 45  52 69 02
31 75 17  27 41 55  65 07 51
80 13 30  37 63 23  06 47 70
50 64 09  16 33 74  57 26 40
72 05 46  29 79 15  22 39 62
01 54 68  78 11 34  44 58 21 
Here I have shown listings for index numbers 2 to 5.
Complete listings for all 58 order3 tesseracts are available for
downloading in MS Word and Adobe PDF. My
Hypercube Generator3.xls which was used to generate these listings is
available from the same downloads page.
Catalog
of the 58 order3 magic tesseracts
This is a sorted list of all the basic
order3 magic tesseracts. Shown is the index number. Then the lower left front
corner number (c) followed by the 4 numbers adjacent to it (x,
y, z, w). The numbers xy, xz, and yz are
not required to identify the tesseract, but are required to reconstruct it.
T# indicates the order that John Hendricks first constructed each tesseract.
Species is a special classification. It will be discussed in the next
section.
Species
John Hendricks found another way to classify
magic tesseract of order3. He gave it the term species.
[1] The 1 order3 basic magic square
has even numbers on all 4 corners. So there is only one species of order 3
magic square.
All 4 order3 basic magic cubes have the same
arrangement of even and odd numbers, as shown in the illustration to the
right. So there is only 1 species of order3 magic cubes.
There are 58 basic order3 magic tesseracts. In these,
the even and odd numbers appear in 3 different arrangements. These are shown
in the illustration below. 

Species 1 is easy to spot. Find any
corner with an odd number. Check the rays (row, column, pillar, file)
passing through it. If the other 2 numbers in each is an even number ,
this is a species # 1 tesseract. There are only two basic magic tesseracts
of this species.
For species # 2, again consider a
corner with an odd number. Two of the rays will contain all odd numbers,
and the other two rays will contain two even numbers. There are 24
tesseracts of this species.
The remaining 32 magic tesseracts are
of species # 3. Through an odd numbered corner, either the remaining
numbers are even in only one ray, or the remaining numbers are odd in only
one ray.
[1] Hendricks, J. R., All ThirdOrder Magic Tesseracts,
Selfpublished, 1999, 0968470025 (Both Keh and Collison mentioned, all
tesseracts diagrammed, species)
